Compare the original context of the song (i.e., within “Hot Chocolates”) with Armstrong’s performance.

3-5 pages, typed, double spaced, and submitted in Canvas by uploading your work as a .doc, .docx, .rtf, or .pdf document. Please also paste the text of your essay into the submission box; if your file does not open properly and no text appears in the Submissions Box, you will not receive a grade on the assignment. No hard copies or emailed versions will be accepted

CITATIONS: If you make direct reference to any readings — including your textbook — or web pages, you need to cite your sources. Please include a bibliography at the end of your paper, as well as parenthetical citations (including author’s name and page number) immediately after any quotation or direct reference. I do not care whether your bibliography is in Chicago style, MLA style, or APA style.


Louis Armstrong’s performance of “(What Did I Do To Be So) Black and Blue.”


Begin your essay by describing how Armstrong’s interpretation of the work illustrates the characteristics of jazz in the 1920s. (1 of 3 pages)

Compare the original context of the song (i.e., within “Hot Chocolates”) with Armstrong’s performance. This will involve both considering the alterations Armstrong made to the form and text, as well as its removal from its intended dramatic situation. (1 of 3 pages)

Place this rendition of “(What Did I Do To Be So) Black and Blue” within the larger framework of Armstrong’s position on racism in the US (and elsewhere). In your opinion, was/is Armstrong an effective advocate for racial tolerance and equality? Why or why not? (1 of 3 pages)


I have placed a recording of the work in both the “Pages” and “Files” areas of Canvas.

You may access several relevant readings through the library’s reserve pages. These include excerpts from “Satchmo Blows Up the World,” “Satchmo,” “Pops,” and “Black and Blue”; the link in “Pages” area will take you directly to these sources.

If you want to fully cover the topic (and therefore receive high marks on the assignment), you must consult the reserve sources, though you may also do additional research if you wish. However, “Wikipedia” and other free online encyclopedias are not proper sources (nor are personal blogs, pages intended for K-12 education, and many other online sites); because their content is not reliable, these databases are not appropriate for college-level research. Use of “Wikipedia” and similar sources — even when properly cited — will result in a grade no higher than a C.

Dr. Basinger and her assistants have the final say on what constitutes as appropriate source.


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