What are some inter-dependencies and risks involved with critical infrastructures? Provide an example.

For example: What are some inter-dependencies and risks involved with critical infrastructures? Provide an example. Critical infrastructure is by nature a crucial part of a country’s operations. As such, those sectors are potential targets for terrorist organizations or other groups seeking to disrupt a nation’s day-to-day functions. The field of critical infrastructure security is therefore a key branch of homeland security, and security professionals must seek to identify and prevent threats against critical infrastructure. Security agencies and SSAs must work together as well to determine how best to strengthen the infrastructure and reduce vulnerability to future interference.The various sectors of critical infrastructure are highly interdependent on one another. For example, the food and agriculture sector relies heavily on the transportation sector to move food from where it is grown or produced to where it is consumed. Similarly, the communications sector facilitates the operations of every other sector, and the information technology sector assists numerous other sectors with their computer-based operations. All of those sectors must collaborate to ensure the efficient, effective, and secure functioning of a nation’s infrastructural systems. The Presidential Decision Directive 63 document established the framework to protect the critical infrastructure and the Presidential document of 2003, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace stated that securing SCADA systems is a national priority.The critical infrastructure includes telecommunication, transportation, energy, banking, finance, water supply, emergency services, government services, agriculture, and other fundamental systems and services that are critical to the security, economic prosperity, and social well-being of the public. The critical infrastructure is characterized by interdependencies (physical, cyber, geo-graphic, and logical) and complexity (collections of interacting components). Cyber interdependencies are a result of the pervasive computerization and automation of infrastructures (Rinaldi, Peerenboom, & Kelly, 200 1). The critical infrastructure disruptions can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions, and send ripples throughout the national and global economy. For example, under normal operating conditions, the electric power infrastructure requires fuels (natural gas and petroleum), transportation, water, banking and finance, telecommunication, and SCADA systems for monitoring and control References Crelin, J. (2015). Critical infrastructure. Salem Press Encyclopedia,Rinaldi, S. M., Peerenboom, J. P., & Kelly, T. K. (2001). Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 21(6), 11-25.Protić, D. D. (2016). CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES: THREATS, VULNERABILITIES AND PROTECTION. Military Technical Courier / Vojnotehnicki Glasnik, 64(3), 812-837. doi: 10.5937/vojtehg64-9986   Question #1Given the discussion about CI vulnerabilities, do you expect an increasing number of infrastructure failures in the United States? What can be done to address them?     Question #2How best should infrastructure leaders and managers prepare for crisis management tasks on a regular basis and thereby update their system EOPs?Where does the scope of private sector responsibilities end and where does the NRF and federal authorities begin?     Question #3Locked before Monday, October 10, 2016 12:00 AM EDT. Must post first.Given the production and distribution systems for energy in oil, gas, electricity and related items which aspect is more vulnerable to natural disasters and terrorism—production or distribution?    Question #4When conflicts arise between military demands and civilian needs for energy in short supply or after a major crisis which area deserves priority and why—the military or the civilian economy?   Question #5Our fragile infrastructures face a variety of threats and systems management requires that we devise policies and programs to protect them. Given the variety of physical threats to infrastructure, what would you say if you were a newly appointed Chief Risk Officer for a large energy organization and you were asked to write your own job description?  Question #6How can the government sector – federal, state, or local – achieve better results with departments and agencies in reporting malicious activity on their cyber networks and systems? What should be done with such reporting?      

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